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School of Social Work
School of Social Work

For more information, contact:

Jose B. AshfordProfessor602-496-0095 jose.ashford@asu.edu

Office of Offender Diversion and Sentencing Solutions

The Office of Offender Diversion and Sentencing Solutions (OODSS) promotes the use of scientific evidence in designing and evaluating sentencing policies and practices for pre-booking and post-booking diversion programs, pre-sentence and post-conviction proceedings, and offender reentry programs for adult and juvenile offenders. The OODSS carries out this mission by engaging in research-practice collaborations with community partners, evaluations of Arizona criminal and juvenile justice policies and interventions, and the development of innovative educational and training materials for social workers and other criminal justice professionals with an interest in reforming the treatment of offenders in the adult and juvenile justice systems.

The OODSS also provides an on-line graduate certificate in criminal sentencing and sentencing advocacy taught by faculty from the School of Social Work and the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice in the College of Public Service and Community Solutions at Arizona State University. This program prepares individuals with degrees in social work, criminal justice, and counseling for evidence-based practice as sentencing professionals. This graduate-certificate program exposes students to research and practice skills as presentence investigators, mitigation specialists, and victim service specialists.

Current Projects:

The Arizona Justice Project (AJP)

The OODSS is currently involved in a research-practice partnership with the Arizona Justice Project. The Arizona Justice Project helps inmates in prisons overturn wrongful convictions and unjust or disproportionate sentences in the state of Arizona.

OODSS is assisting AJP in performing a comprehensive study of clemency and parole boards across the county and a study profiling juveniles serving life sentences in Arizona. OODSS is also partnering with the project in providing interdisciplinary training between law students from the Sandra Day O’ Connor College of Law’s Post-Conviction Clinic and graduate-students from the School of Social Work. The students participating in this interdisciplinary training unit learn how to implement holistic principles of indigent defense and how to develop evidence-supported release plans for presentation at parole hearings for juveniles serving life sentences. The social work students also learn how to develop community supports for offenders reentering the community after long prison sentences.

City of Phoenix Prosecutor’s Office: Diversion Research

OODSS has established a research-practice partnership with the City of Phoenix Prosecutor’s Office to evaluate its domestic violence and misdemeanor assaultive offender diversion programs. It is also involved in the design of an empirically supported set of guidelines for exercising discretion in the prosecution of domestic violence cases. OODSS is also exploring the establishment of a training unit for social workers with interests in forensic assessment and treatment within the City Court that will provide assessment, screening, and treatment services in partnership with other agencies serving offenders processed by the Phoenix City Court.

Transition from Juvenile Delinquency to Young Adult Offending: Recidivism prevention study

OODSS is evaluating the effectiveness of a community-support service intervention to prevent recidivism and prevent transitions to adult crime for high-risk youth on juvenile probation. This collaboration is with the Maricopa County Department of Human Services and the Maricopa County Juvenile Probation Department. OODSS is in the final phases of this project. It is in the process of completing a three-year criminal follow-up of a treatment and a comparison group of high-risk juvenile offenders in Maricopa County Arizona.

Leadership and Advisory Board Members

Director: José B. Ashford, Ph.D., LCSW

Advisory Board

Aaron J. Carreon-Ainsa, J.D, Retired Phoenix City Prosecutor, Phoenix, Arizona

William Gonzalez, Trial Bureau Chief, City of Phoenix Prosecutor’s Office, Phoenix, Arizona

Tina Maschi, Associate Professor, Fordham University, New York

Kenneth Murry,Retired Federal Assistant Public Defender, Phoenix, Arizona

Katherine Puzauskas,Supervising Legal Clinic Attorney, Post-Conviction Clinic, Sandra Day O’ Connor, College of Law, Phoenix, Arizona

Bruce D. Sales,Virginia L Roberts Professor of Criminal Justice, University of Indiana Bloomington

Luigi Maria Solivetti, Professor, University of Rome, La Sapienza

Shawneé Rae Ziegler,Operations Manager Arizona Justice Project, Phoenix, Arizona

School of Social Work

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From Povos Indígenas no Brasil

Constitutional rights of the indigenous peoples

The constitutional Rights of the indigenous peoples are expressed in a specific chapter of the Constitution of 1988 (title VIII, "Of the Social Order ", chapter VIII, "of the indigenous peoples"), aside from other regulations throughout the text and an article of the Acts of the Transitory Constitutional Regulations.

This deals with the Rights marked by at least two innovative and important concepts in relation to prior Constitutions and the so-called The Indian Statute . The first innovation is the abandonment of the assimilationist point of view, which considered the indigenous peoples as a transitory social category, destined to disappear. The second innovation is that the rights of the indigenous peoples over their lands are defined in the concept of original rights that are prior to the creation of the State itself. This is a result of the de facto historical recognition that the indigenous peoples were the first occupants of Brazil.

The new Constitution establishes, in this manner, a new outlook for the relations between the State, Brazilian society and the indigenous peoples.

Right to be different

With the new constitutional concepts, the indigenous peoples were assured of respect for their social organization, customs , languages , beliefs and traditions. For the first time, the indigenous peoples of Brazil were recognized as having the right to be different, that is, to be indigenous peoples and remain that way indefinitely. This is stated in the head of article 231 of The Constitution:

Note that the right to be different does not imply fewer rights or privileges because the Constitution of 1988 assured indigenous peoples the right to use their languages and own processes for education at the primary school level (Article 210, § 2º), thus inaugurating a new phase for the implementation of indigenous grade school education.

Furthermore, the Constitution allows the indigenous peoples, their communities and organizations, just as any individual or corporate entity in Brazil, the right to file suit in court in the defense of their rights and interests.

It is recognized that the indigenous peoples have the right to their social organization, customs, languages, beliefs and traditions, and their original rights over the lands that they have traditionally occupied, it being the duty of the federal government to demarcate these lands, protect them and ensure that all their properties and assets are respected”.

Indigenous peoples's rights to their land

The new Constitution was innovative in every sense, establishing above all that the Rights of the Indians to the lands they traditionally occupy are of an original nature, in the sense that they are original to the land, prior to the formation of the Brazilian state or government, existing independently of any official recognition.

The text in force gives a constitutional category or status to the concept of indigenous lands , which is defined as follows in paragraph 2 of Article 231:

These characteristics, therefore, define a specific area of land as being indigenous. Once these characteristics are present, and are verified in accordance with the uses, custom s and traditions of indigenous people’s the right to the land by the community that occupies it is an existing right and its legitimized independently of any constitutional act. In this sense, the demarcation of indigenous land, the result of recognition by the state, is an act that merely states or declares that said land is indigenous, and its objective is simply to delineate the real extension of their title to ensure the full efficacy of the the constitutional ruling and the State has the obligation to protect these indigenous lands

With regard to Indigenous lands, the Constitution of 1988 stipulates further that:

In the Transitory Constitutional regulation, five years was stipulated as the time frame for the demarcation of all the indigenous lands . This deadline was not honored, and the demarcations are still a matter that is still pending.

Lands traditionally occupied by the Indians are those that they have inhabited permanently, used for their productive activity, their welfare and necessary for their cultural and physical reproduction, according to their uses, customs and traditions."

The ins and outs of Rocket, in detail.

Together, a route's attribute and function signature specify what must be true about a request in order for the route's handler to be called. You've already seen an example of this in action:

This route indicates that it only matches against GET requests to the /world route. Rocket ensures that this is the case before handler is called. Of course, you can do much more than specify the method and path of a request. Among other things, you can ask Rocket to automatically validate:

The route attribute and function signature work in tandem to describe these validations. Rocket's code generation takes care of actually validating the properties. This section describes how to ask Rocket to validate against all of these properties and more.

A Rocket route attribute can be any one of get , put , post , delete , head , patch , or options , each corresponding to the HTTP method to match against. For example, the following attribute will match against POST requests to the root path:

The grammar for these attributes is defined formally in the Active Runner sneakers White Givenchy a092s
API docs.

Rocket handles HEAD requests automatically when there exists a GET route that would otherwise match. It does this by stripping the body from the response, if there is one. You can also specialize the handling of a HEAD request by declaring a route for it; Rocket won't interfere with HEAD requests your application handles.

Because browsers can only send GET and POST requests, Rocket reinterprets request methods under certain conditions. If a POST request contains a body of Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded , and the form's first field has the name _method and a valid HTTP method name as its value (such as "PUT" ), that field's value is used as the method for the incoming request. This allows Rocket applications to submit non- POST forms. The pointed leather court shoe in bright blue Blue Dune London Vd9qxEM
makes use of this feature to submit PUT and DELETE requests from a web form.

You can declare path segments as dynamic by using angle brackets around variable names in a route's path. For example, if we want to say Hello! to anything, not just the world, we can declare a route like so:

If we were to mount the path at the root ( .mount("/", routes![hello]) ), then any request to a path with two non-empty segments, where the first segment is hello , will be dispatched to the hello route. For example, if we were to visit /hello/John , the application would respond with Hello, John! .

Incidental or "occult" pneumothoraces are often discovered through CT scanning obtained without clinical suspicion of pneumothorax, especially on patients with trauma and/or on mechanical ventilation. Ideal management of these (evacuation with chest tube vs observation) is unknown. A recent multicenter observational study in mechanically ventilated patients (mainly surgical/trauma) suggested that observation of apparently stable incidentally discovered pneumothoraces, with placement of tube thoracostomy if the pneumothorax worsened or was causing significant problems, resulted in successful avoidance of unnecessary chest tubes without worsening outcomes.

multicenter observational study

Standard practice is to place a chest tube for any pneumothorax occurring during mechanical ventilation, due to the risk of positive pressure expanding the pneumothorax into a tension pneumothorax. The British Thoracic Society explicitly recommends this, and also recommends tube thoracostomy for anyone with pneumothorax after trauma, surgery, or with tension physiology.

Authors consider small-bore chest tubes to befirst-line therapy for pneumothorax in the ICU.Smaller-bore "pigtail" chest tubes have a lower rate of major complications than larger bore tubes, and Over The Knee Floral Print Heeled Boots Multi River Island kaxYrMNVIY
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shows small-bore tubes work as well as in previous studies in larger-borechest tubes, with nomajor complications.

small-bore chest tubes to befirst-line therapy work well retrospective review of >100 mechanically ventilated patients

Manual aspiration with thoracentesis (accepted practice for many cases of pneumothorax outside the ICU) has not been studied in critically ill patients and is not recommended.

Suspect tension pneumothorax in patients:

Ifthere's a high clinical suspicion for tension pneumothorax, needledecompression should be performedwith minimal delay. (If an experienced ultrasonographer is at hand, the diagnosis may be attempted that way first,if there are minutes to spare):

Insert a 14 to 16 gauge needle in the 2nd anterior intercostal space in the mid-clavicular line on the side suspected for pneumothorax.
If a patient is too obese for the needle to reach the pleural space, attempt needle decompression between the 4th and 5th intercostal spaces in the midaxillary line.
Place a tube thoracostomy as soon as feasible after needle decompression of tension pneumothorax.

When to Consult Thoracic Surgery

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